1. Who gave the law of constant or definite proportion? Also state the law.
Ans. Joseph.L. Proust gave the law of constant or definite proportion.
The law of constant proportion states that ‘in a chemical compound the elements always combine in a definite proportion by mass irrespective of the source from which it is obtained’.
2. What are the postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory?
Ans. The postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory are as follows:-
a)All matter is made of very tiny particles called atoms.
b) Atoms are indivisible particles, which cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction.
c) Atoms of a given element are identical in mass and chemical properties.
d) Atoms of different elements have different masses and chemical properties.
e) Atoms combine in the ratio of small whole numbers to form compounds.
f) The relative number and kind of atoms are constant in a given compound.
3. a) An element Z forms an oxide with formula X . What is it’s valency?
b) The valency of an element A is 4. Write the formula of its oxide.
c)An element X has valency 3, while the element Y has valency 2. Write the formula of the compound formed between X and Y.
Ans.: a) Valency of Z is 3.
b) The formula of the oxide of element A is or .
c) The formula of the compound is .
4. a) Define mole.
b) How many particles are present in one mole of a substance?
c) What is Avogadro’s number?
d) What is molar mass?
Ans: a) A mole is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many particles (atoms, molecules or ions) of that substance as the number of atoms present in exactly 12g of Carbon–12.
b) particles are present in one mole of a substance.
c) The number of particles present in one mole of a substance i.e. is known as Avogadro’s number/Constant.
d) The mass of one mole substance is known as its molar mass. It is the atomic or molecular mass of that substance expressed in grams.
5. Before selecting C-12 atom for calculating relative atomic masses, oxygen was taken as reference. Why? What was the reason for changing the reference to C-12?
Ans: Oxygen was selected because of the following two reasons:
a) Oxygen combines with most of the elements to form compounds.
b) By comparing with mass of oxygen taken as 16, the relative atomic masses of most of the elements were found to be whole numbers (not fractions).
Now oxygen is not taken as reference because it was found that naturally occurring oxygen is a mixture of atoms of slightly different masses (called isotopes).
6. Calculate the number of particles in each of the following:
(i) 46 g of Na atoms (number from mass)
(ii) 8 g molecules (number of molecules from mass)
(iii) 0.1 mole of carbon atoms (number of atoms from given moles).
atomic mass of oxygen = 16 u
molar mass of molecules
(iii) The number of particles (atom) = number of moles of particles × Avogadro number
7. Define (a.m.u.) atomic mass unit.
Ans: Atomic mass unit or a.m.u. is defined as 1/12th of the mass of one atom of Carbon-12 atom.
1 amu =
8. What mass of will contain same number of molecules as that in 36 grams of ?
Ans: Molar mass of
No. of molecules in
Therefore number of molecules in 36 grams of H2O =
Molar mass of
molecules of have mass = 17 g
Therefore molecules of NH3 have mass
9. Calculate number of atoms in the following :-
(atomic mas of He = 4u)
i) 16 moles of He (ii) 16 u of He (iii) 16 g of He
Ans.:(i) Number of atoms in 1mole of He
Number of atoms in 16 moles of He =
ii) Number of atoms in of He =1atom
Number of atoms in 16u of He = of He
iii) 16g of He
Number of atoms in 1 mole of He
Number of atoms in 4 moles of He
10. Mass of an element ‘X’ is found to be 930 mg. Calculate the molar mass of X.
Ans.: 930 mg = 0.930 g
Mass of atoms of ‘X’ = 0.930 g
Molar mass of X= 56 g
11. What is the mass of 4 moles of aluminium atoms? (Atomic mass of Al = 27u)
Ans: The atomic mass of aluminium is given to be 27u. This means that I mole of aluminium atoms has a mass of 27 grams.
Now, 1 mole of aluminium atoms = 27 g
So, 4 moles of aluminium atoms
Thus, the mass of 4 moles of aluminium atoms is 108 grams.
12. Write the molecular formulae for the following compounds
(a) Copper (II) bromide (b) Aluminium (III) nitrate
(c) Calcium (II) phosphate (d) Iron (III) sulphide
(e) Mercury (II) chloride (f) Magnesium (II) acetate
13. Calculate the number of molecules of sulphur (S8) present in 16 g of solid sulphur
Ans: Mass of 1 mole of Sulphur also as 1 mole number of particles of that substance
So, 256 g of sulphur contains molecules of sulphur
Therefore 16 g of sulphur will contain =
14. Calculate number of atoms in the following :-
(atomic mass of He = 4u)
(i) 16 moles of He (ii) 16 u of He (iii) 16 g of He
Ans.: (i) Number of atoms in 1mole of He
Number of atoms in 16 moles of He
(ii) Number of atoms in 4u of He = 1atom
Number of atoms in 16u of He= of He
(iii) 16g of He
Number of atoms in 1 mole of He
Number of atoms in 4 moles of He =
15. When 3.0 g of carbon is burnt in 8.00 g oxygen, 11.00 g of carbon dioxide is produced. What mass of carbon dioxide will be formed when 3.00 g of carbon is burnt in 50.00 g of oxygen? Which law of chemical combination will govern your answer?
Since 3.0 g carbon reacts with only 8.0 g of oxygen, 42g of oxygen will remain unreacted and only 8.0 g will react and form 11.0 g of carbon dioxide.
The answer is governed by:
Law of constant proportion i.e. in carbon dioxide carbon and oxygen combine in a fixed ratio by mass (i.e. 3:8).