Power Sharing class 10 CBSE is Chapter 1 is of your Civics book Democratic Politics II. Vipin Sir has explained the chapter in the form of Questions and Answers so that you are prepared for the exams as soon as you have watched the video lecture. We make efforts and design our lectures in such a way that you do not have to make much efforts to learn a chapter.
The lecture explains how the rule of the majority created problems in Sri Lanka and how accommodation helped Belgium avoid conflicts between the Dutch and the French speaking communities. Then the lecture explains why power sharing is necessary.
Watch the lecture and get ready for the exams!!
1. Describe the ethnic composition of the people in Belgium
Ans. (i) The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.
(ii) Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.
(iii) Remaining 1 per cent of the Belgians speak German.
(iv) In the capital city Brussels, 80 per cent people speak French while 20 per cent are Dutch-speaking.
(v) The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later. This led to tension between the Dutch speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s
2. Describe the ethnic diversity of the people in Sri Lanka.
Ans. (i) The major social groups in Sri Lanka are the Sinhala-speakers (74 per cent) and the Tamil-speakers (18 per cent). Among Tamils, there are two subgroups. Tamil natives of the country are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’. The rest, whose forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial period, are called ‘Indian Tamils’.
(ii) Most of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhist, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. There are about 7 per cent Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala.
3. How was power shared between the people in Belgium?
Ans. (i) The Belgium Government recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities.
(ii) Between 1970 and 1993 they amended their constitution four times to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. The arrangement they worked out is different from any other country and is very innovative.
(iii) Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.
(iv) Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government.
(v) Brussels has a separate government in which both communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
(vi) Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.
(vii)They helped to avoid- civic strife between the two major communities and- a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
4. Describe the horizontal distribution of power. What are its advantage?
Ans. (i) Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. We call this horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.
(ii) Such separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.
(iii) Similarly, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.
5. Describe the power sharing among different social groups.
Ans. (i) Power may be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement.
(ii) In some countries, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration.
For example in India seats are reserved for SC & ST and women in local bodies